In the thirty years from 1860 to 1890, Utah's population jumped from some 40,000 to more than 200,000. Most people lived along the 75 miles of the Wasatch Front area. However, the LDS (Mormon) church leaders continued to direct the settlement of remote areas such as Cache, Sevier, and Sanpete valleys as well as the back valleys of the Wasatch Mountains and southern Utah.
Little Soldier, a Weber Ute.
This expansion devastated Utah’s American Indians. Conflicts over resources led to the Black Hawk War (1865-68), the most serious of the Utah Indian wars. After the Ute defeat in that war, the federal government removed them to the Uintah and Ouray Reservation, in eastern Utah.
Agriculture, supported by irrigation projects, remained a mainstay of the economy during the 1800s.
However, several other significant economic developments marked the 1860s to the 1890s. At the urging of Brigham Young, many communities experimented with cooperative ventures. Zion’s Cooperative Mercantile Institution (ZCMI), founded in 1868, was one of American's oldest department stores.